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Pope Gregory VII recognised in 1077 the new "Laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders.
This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power.
Between 10, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa.
In 1051–1052 the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, provoking more resentment from the Genoese.
In 1017 Sardinian Giudicati were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen King Mugahid who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia the year before.
) is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces and various bridges across the Arno.